Flow theory explains the conditions for optimal engagement (enjoyment, interest, and concentration). There are three types of engagement: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral. When these are combined and present at their peak, flow takes place. In the era of information, media, and technology, current concerns in education include an increasing student disengagement and disaffection. Recently, educational organizations have focused on 21st century skills and the importance of developing these in order to better engage with society. This mixed study explores the relationship between the inclusion of 21st century skills in an L2 task and the level of engagement of students, and whether it reaches flow. Participants came from two sections of intermediate-low Spanish FL classrooms. Findings show there is a positive relationship between 21st century skills and all three types of engagement. 21st century skills are also related to authentic work. Sense of control, clear goals, high challenges matched with high skills in a contextualized setting lead to increased engagement. Flow did not take place, but different levels and intensity of engagement in all areas did.
College and Department
Humanities; Spanish and Portuguese
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Cox, Carolina Benito, "21st Century Skills and Principles of Flow in the Foreign Language Classroom" (2014). All Theses and Dissertations. 4197.
Foreign language, engagement, flow, 21st century skills, authentic learning