Facies and Reservoir Characterization of the Permian White Rim Sandstone, Black Box Dolomite, and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation for CO2 Storage and Sequestration at Woodside Field, East-Central Utah
Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas emissions is an engineering solution that potentially reduces CO2 emissions released into the atmosphere thereby limiting their effect on climate change. This study focuses on Woodside field as a potential storage and sequestration site for CO2 emissions. The Woodside field is positioned on a doubly plunging, asymmetrical anticline on the northeast flank of the San Rafael Swell. Particular focus will be placed on the Permian White Rim Sandstone, Black Box Dolomite and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation as the reservoir/seal system to store and sequester CO2 at Woodside field. The White Rim Sandstone, the primary target reservoir, is divided into three stratigraphic intervals based on facies analysis: a lower sand sheet facies (about 60 ft or 18 m), a thick middle eolian sandstone facies (about 390 ft or 119 m), and an upper marine reworked facies (about 70 ft or 21 m). Porosity and permeability analyses from the outcrop indicate good reservoir quality in the eolian sandstone and reworked facies. Porosity in the White Rim Sandstone ranges from 7.6 to 24.1% and permeability reaches up to 2.1 D. The maximum combined thickness of the three facies is 525 ft (160 m) at Woodside field providing a significant volume of porous and permeable rock in which to store CO2. The Black Box Dolomite is the secondary potential reservoir for CO2 storage at Woodside field and has a gross thickness up to 76 ft (23 m). The Black Box Dolomite is divided into four lithofacies: a basal nodular dolomudstone (8.2 -15 ft or 3.5-4.5 m), a dolowackestone (25-37 ft or 7.5-11 m), a dolomitic sandstone (0-8.2 ft or 0-2.5 m), and an upper sandy dolowackestone (0-16 ft or 0-4.9 m). Porosity and permeability analyses indicate reservoir potential in the dolowackestone, dolomitic sandstone, and sandy dolowackestone lithofacies. Porosity in the Black Box Dolomite ranges from 6.6 to 29.2% and permeability reaches up to 358 mD. The nodular dolomudstone lithofacies has relatively poor reservoir quality with porosity up to 9.4% and permeability up to 0.182 mD. This lithofacies could act as a baffle or barrier to fluid communication between the White Rim Sandstone and Black Box Dolomite. The Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation will serve as the seal rock for the relatively buoyant CO2 stored in the underlying formations. The Black Dragon Member is comprised of four lithofacies: a chert pebble conglomerate; an interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale; a trough cross-stratified sandstone, and an oolitic and algal limestone. The Black Dragon Member has a maximum thickness of 280 ft (85 m) at Woodside field. Mudstone beds contain from 0.16 to 0.47% porosity. QEMSCAN analysis indicates several minerals within shale beds that may react with a CO2-rich brine including calcite (18.73 to 23.43%), dolomite (7.56 to 7.89%), alkali feldspar (4.12 to 4.43 %), glauconite (0.04 to 0.05%), and plagioclase (0.03 to 0.04%). Silty mudstones comprise 75% of this member at Black Dragon Canyon. Volumetric estimates for Woodside field were calculated based on the 10th, 50th, and 90th percent probabilities (P10, P50, and P90). The White Rim Sandstone is the primary target reservoir and has capacity to hold 2.2, 8.8, or 23.7 million metric tonnes (P10, P50, and P90 respectively) of CO2 within the structural closure of Woodside field. The Black Box Dolomite may hold 0.5, 1.8, or 4.5 million metric tonnes, respectively of additional CO2 within the structural closure of Woodside field. These two formations combined have the capacity to store up to 28.3 million metric tonnes (P90) of CO2.
College and Department
Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Geological Sciences
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Harston, Walter Andrew, "Facies and Reservoir Characterization of the Permian White Rim Sandstone, Black Box Dolomite, and Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation for CO2 Storage and Sequestration at Woodside Field, East-Central Utah" (2013). All Theses and Dissertations. 3567.
White Rim Sandstone, Black Box Dolomite, Black Dragon Member, facies analysis, reservoir characterization, surface to subsurface correlation, subsurface mapping, storage, sequestration