Current maximum efficiency of phosphorus (P) fertilizers that is utilized by plants in the same year of application ranges from near zero to thirty percent. Despite low utilization of P in crop production, yields are often limited by P deficiencies. Innovative technology is requisite to achieve greater efficiency as fertilizer demands are increasing, while phosphorus mineral resources are rapidly being depleted. A growing environmental concern for nutrient pollution of surface waters also carries significant weight. A novel new product, Carbond® P, is promising technology to increase P use efficiency. Research is needed to understand its capabilities and the functioning mechanisms imbedded within its technology. Several research studies were conducted to evaluate Carbond® P (CBP) against traditional fertilizers ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP). A soil column leaching study was conducted to determine P mobility through three soils, at two rates (20 and 30 kg P ha-1) in either a banded or mixed soil application. Mobility of P was evaluated at 24, 48, 110 and 365 d after fertilization. CBP showed significantly greater total P leachate values across all soil types and application rates averaged across all readings taken until 365 daf for both application types. In the banded applications, CBP generally produced significantly greater solubility than MAP or APP up until 110 daf. For applications mixed with soil, CBP and MAP had greater solubility than APP at 24 days after application, but by the later evaluation dates (48 and 110 daf) the CBP was significantly higher than both MAP and APP. No statistical significance was found in the leachate P 365 daf in either the banded or mixed applications. One glasshouse study on maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three soils were conducted at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 kg P ha-1 comparing CBP and APP fertilizer impacts on early season growth. CBP produced significantly more biomass in two soils when averaged across rates (and at the 20 kg P ha-1 rate in a third soil), increased petiole P in one soil and thicker stems in another. Two field trials showed similar physiological advantages with CBP over APP at later growth stages. CBP maize responded with significantly more biomass and P uptake at the V12-V18 growth stages in one field, as well as plant height in another. At the R2-R3 growth stages, CBP also produced thicker stalks in both fields than APP. These growth enhancements were strongest in medium to highly calcareous soil (6-12 %) low in P (7 mg kg-1). These observations warrant the use of CBP and further investigation to understand its benefits and limitations.



College and Department

Life Sciences; Plant and Wildlife Sciences



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phosphorus, P, organic acid, Carbond P, maize, Zea mays, fertilizer, phosphorus use efficiency, PUE