The purpose of this study was to measure the change in joint energy of the hip,knee and ankle of the right and left leg, in the sagittal plane during the delivery phase of the rotational shot put. We hypothesized that (1) throwers who produced a greater total hip energy change would have greater horizontal displacement and (2) throwers who produced a higher ratio of hip energy, in each leg independently, would produce greater horizontal displacement. Subjects (n = 8) must have been right-handed, collegiate or post collegiate level throwers trained in the rotational technique. Vicon Nexus System (Denver, CO, USA) used six MX13+, two F20, two T20 cameras recorded at 240 Hz, and the body Plug-in Gait model to track the body position during each trial. Two AMTI force plates (OR-6, Watertown, MA, USA) were used for collecting ground reaction force data at 960 Hz. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine a relationship between total hip energy change and horizontal displacement. A mixed model regression was used to determine any correlation between horizontal distance and left and right energy change ratios. Athletes who produced a greater total hip energy change had the greatest horizontal displacement (p = .022). Also throwers who produced a higher ratio of left hip energy change to total left leg energy produced the greatest horizontal displacement (p = .02). The ratio of right hip energy change to right leg energy change was found to not be significant to horizontal displacement (p = .955). We feel the findings on the left leg energy change are an attempt by the athlete to both accelerate the shot put as well as stop the rotational progression to allow the athlete to complete a fair throw. The athlete extending both the right and the left hip rapidly during the delivery phase can help explain the combined right and left hip energy change. This action accelerates the ball in a proximal-distal sequence, which allows athletes to reach high final shot put velocities. The higher the final velocity on the shot put positively correlates with the horizontal displacement.



College and Department

Life Sciences; Exercise Sciences



Date Submitted


Document Type





shot put, joint moments, force profile, energy