Many researchers feel that teacher preparation programs are not doing enough to prepare teachers to effectively use technology. The result is a plethora of teachers who may know the basic functions of different programs, but who are unprepared to integrate these skills into their teaching. One method used by a few preservice programs, including BYU's, is the use of modeling sessions, otherwise referred to as live modeling. In these modeling sessions, the instructor models for the preservice teachers how a K-12 teacher could teach with technology, while the preservice teachers participate as if they were K-12 students. This thesis is a qualitative investigation of how this method of live modeling has impacted students, according to the perceptions of a sample of former students of the course. This project also has a practical focus of identifying strategies for improving modeling, and pitfalls that may indicate when modeling is not as effective. Overall, this study found that modeling was perceived by most students to be effective at teaching technology skills and ideas for integrating technology as teachers. However, there were some students who struggled to abstract principles from the modeling that could help them as teachers. In other words, they struggled to cognitively transfer the learning from the context of the modeling session to their own teaching contexts. In this research I identify five main contextual breakdowns that often occurred among students in the course. These were breakdowns, or differences, between the modeled context and the students' actual contexts that were sufficiently large enough to disrupt the students' abilities to cognitively transfer the learning. By adapting the live modeling method to more specifically address unique students' needs and contexts, then the cognitive transfer of learning should be easier and the method could be a strong tool for training preservice teachers to use technology in their own teaching.



College and Department

David O. McKay School of Education; Instructional Psychology and Technology



Date Submitted


Document Type





technology integration, preservice training, model-centered instruction, modeling, modeling sessions, live modeling, video case studies, video modeling, grounded theory, qualitative, naturalistic, preservice, instructional technology, educational technology