Cassini spacecraft images of Io obtained during its flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 and early 2001 were used to determine the lava composition and eruption style of three faint hotspots, Pillan, Wayland, and Loki. We found a maximum color temperature of 1130+/-289 K for Pillan and maximum color temperatures of 1297+/-289 K and 1387+/-287 K for Wayland and Loki, respectively. These temperatures are suggestive of basaltic lava. The temperatures with the best signal-to-noise ratios also suggested basaltic lava and were found to be 780+/-189 K, 1116+/-250 K, and 1017+/-177 K for Pillan, Wayland, and Loki, respectively. Pillan showed increased activity on the third eclipse day after being fairly constant for the first two days, suggesting increased fountaining or lava flow activity on the third day. The data also suggest that Pillan is surrounded by topography that blocked emission on day000 and caused a much more dramatic decrease in emission. Wayland's intensity decreased over the three eclipses, consistent with a cooling lava flow or decreasing eruption. However, rapid decreases in intensity over periods of 26 to 48 minutes could have resulted from the eruption of highly exposed lava, perhaps an open channel or fountain. The data also suggest Wayland may be in a depression surrounded by ridges that blocked part of the emission. Intensities at Loki over the course of the observation varied in both directions, and were consistent with previous determinations of an often quiescent lava lake with periods of active overturning and fountains.
College and Department
Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Physics and Astronomy
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Allen, Daniel R., "Temperature and Variability of Three Ionian Volcanoes" (2010). Theses and Dissertations. 2591.
Io, volcanoes, temperature, basaltic