New ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) instrumentation, the toroidal IT and halo IT, were developed to meet the significant growth in on-site analysis applications. The miniature toroidal IT mass analyzer was operated with radio frequency (RF) trapping voltages of 3 kVp-p or less. Despite its reduced dimensions, it has roughly the same ion trapping capacity as conventional 3D quadrupole ITs. Unit-mass resolved spectra for n-butylbenzene, xenon, and naphthalene were obtained. The desired linear mass scale was obtained using conventional mass-selective instability scan combined with resonance ejection. The halo IT was also based on toroidal trapping geometry and microfabrication technology, consisting of two parallel ceramic plates, the facing surfaces of which were imprinted with sets of concentric ring electrodes. Unlike conventional ITs, in which hyperbolic metal electrodes establish equipotential boundary conditions, electric fields in the halo IT were established by applying different RF potentials to each ring. The potential on each ring could be independently optimized to provide the best trapping field. The halo IT featured an open structure, allowing easy access for in situ ionization. The toroidal geometry provided a large trapping volume. The photolithographic fabrication method avoided difficulty in meeting the required machining tolerances. Preliminary mass spectra showed resolution (m/δ m) of 60–75 when the trap was operated at 1.9 MHz and 500 Vp-p. Ion ejection through a hole in the center of the trap, and through slits machined in the ceramic plates were evaluated. The latter ejection method was done to mimic the design of the toroidal IT. The preferred electric fields containing higher order components were optimized by adjusting the potentials applied to the electrode rings of the halo IT without changing the original trapping plates and structure of the IT. The performance of the halo IT with 1% to 7% octopole field (A4/A2) components was determined. A best resolution of 280 (m/δ m) was obtained with 5% octopole field. SIMION simulations were used to demonstrate the toroidal trapping of ions and their mass analysis in both toroidal and halo ITs.



College and Department

Physical and Mathematical Sciences; Chemistry and Biochemistry



Date Submitted


Document Type





Ion trap, Mass spectrometry, Instrumentation, Toroidal ion trap, Halo ion trap