Eleven gas species, including CO, CO2, H2, H2O, H2S, HCl, NOX, O2, SO2, COS and SO3, were measured in a 150 kWth, staged, pulverized coal, down-fired combustor using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, gas chromatograph (GC), and a Horiba PG-250 5-gas analyzer. Additional gases such as HCN, NH3, CH4, and other hydrocarbons were also measured. Seven coals of varying rank and composition were investigated. Measurements were obtained in reducing (S.R. = 0.85) and oxidizing (S.R. = 1.15) conditions. In particular, sulfur- and chlorine-containing species including H2S, SO2, COS, SO3, and HCl are discussed. In the reducing zone, all four measured sulfur species were present although SO3 was only 1-3% of the total coal sulfur. A trade-off between SO2, H2S, and COS was clearly identifiable according to S.R. H2S and COS increased and SO2 decreased in highly reducing or high-CO regions. The total amount of sulfur in the measured species in the reducing zone was estimated to be about 65-80% of the total coal sulfur. The total amount of sulfur measured in the four gases increased linearly with coal sulfur in both the oxidizing and reducing zones for the seven coals considered. In the oxidizing zone, SO3 remained low (1-3% of total sulfur) with the only other measurable sulfur bearing species being SO2. Chlorine was found to be released in the reducing zone and form primarily HCl. As the HCl was transported into the oxidizing region, the chlorine remained as HCl. Measurement of HCl was difficult, making some of the data incomplete. The HCl concentration was found to be affected by the flow rate of gases into the sampling line and gas analyzers suggesting HCl is highly reactive and needs to be quenched rapidly or it will react during sampling. Several trends in the data were matched by equilibrium calculations including trends for H2S, COS and SO2 in both reducing and oxidizing conditions. SO3 did not match equilibrium although the amount of SO3 was proportional to the amount of sulfur in the coal. HCl, though consistent with cited literature for several coals, did not agree with equilibrium trends or values.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





coal, swirl, reducing, oxidizing, corrosion, sulfur, chlorine, BFR, equilibrium