The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of video modeling on skill acquisition in learning the golf swing. One-hundred-eight college students participated in this study. All participants were pre-tested via videotaping to determine initial skill level. The pre-test videotaping was analyzed using DartTrainer software. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) control (2) single-view or (3) multi-view. Participants in the control group viewed a compact disc (CD) with a putting demonstration repeated 40 times. The participants in the single-view group viewed a CD with a front view only demonstration repeated 40 times of the golf swing with a driver. Participants in the multi-view group viewed a CD with a multi-view (front, back, left, and right) demonstration of the golf swing using a driver. The demonstration was performed by a golf professional and each view was repeated 10 times for a total of 40 repetitions. After five weeks of CD viewing, practice, and class instruction, participants were video-taped to determine the level of improvement.

Factorial ANOVA (3 groups x 2 trials) indicated significant within group pretest to posttest differences (F (1, 105) = 295.93, p<0.001). Between group differences were also noted (F, (2,105) = 18.33, p<0.001). Post hoc analysis indicated significantly fewer posttest deviations in the MV group than in the control group (p<0.001). The single-view group also had fewer posttest deviations than did the control group (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the multi-view and single-view groups. The current study suggests that video modeling provided on a CD, which a learner can access on their own, may significantly increase skill acquisition rate and performance in learning the golf swing.



College and Department

Life Sciences; Exercise Sciences



Date Submitted


Document Type





Observational Learning, Visual Demonstration, Cognitive Reference, Video