Multi-Source Feedback (MSF) has become an important tool for leadership development programs. Previous research has examined how self-other agreement in MSF relates to leadership effectiveness. Discrepancies exist in the literature between how to measure self-other agreement and which method best depicts self-awareness. The current study examined the relationship between various measurements of self-other agreement, self-awareness and transformational leadership. MSF data were collected from target leaders (n = 31), and their respective direct report, peer and supervisor raters (n = 233). Raters also evaluated their leaders' self-awareness and leadership behavior. Self-other agreement was measured using a reliability coefficient, self-other agreement r, and a difference squared score, self-other agreement D2. These measures of self-other agreement as well as the direct measure of self-awareness were used to predict transformational leadership. Results indicated that self-other agreement r did not significantly predict transformational leadership, while self-other agreement D2 did significantly predict some of the dimensions of transformational leadership. However, the direct measure of self-awareness was the strongest predictor of transformational leadership. The two methods of calculating self-other agreement did not have a significant correlation, indicating that they may be measuring different constructs. The direct measure of self-awareness also did not correlate significantly with self-other agreement, suggesting that there is a conceptual gap between these two constructs and complexities may arise when researchers operationalize self-other agreement as self-awareness. The issues surrounding the various methods of measuring self-other agreement, as well as the possible confounding effects of the direct measure of self-awareness and difference scores are discussed. Implications for interpreting self-other agreement in MSF processes are also discussed.



College and Department

Family, Home, and Social Sciences; Psychology



Date Submitted


Document Type





Transformational Leadership, 360 degree Feedback, Self-awareness



Included in

Psychology Commons