The White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi) is a California state and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species of special management concern. We studied White-faced Ibis breeding ecology from May through July 1995 on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in the upper Klamath Basin of California. A total of 2029 pairs nested in 3 colonies exclusively in early-successional hardstem bulrush (Scirpus acutus). Nest initiation dates ranged from 10 May to 12 June, and mean clutch size was 3.16. Reproductive success averaged 87% apparent nest success (n = 115), 82% hatchability, 97% whole and partial brood survival, and 2.39 fledglings per successful nest. Mayfield estimates of nest survival were 79.1% during the laying and incubation period and 95% during the nestling period. Overall nest success as estimated by the Mayfield method was 75.4%. Our estimates of nest success are some of the highest reported anywhere in the literature for White-faced Ibis. Therefore, Lower Klamath NWR may maintain preferred White-faced Ibis breeding habitats in years of otherwise poor habitat conditions across the Intermountain West.
Taft, Michael R.; Mauser, David M.; and Arnold, Todd W.
"Breeding ecology of White-faced Ibis (Pleagadis chihi) in the Upper Klamath Basin, California,"
Western North American Naturalist: Vol. 60
, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/wnan/vol60/iss4/6