Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Authoritarian leadership, Ataturk


On May 19, 1919, in the post-World War I Ottoman Empire an Ottoman military officer named Mustafa Kemal Pasha abandoned his pose after he was sent to Samsun on the Black Sea coast to inspect the Ninth Army of the Ottoman Empire, taking up leadership of the Turkish Nationalist Movement against the Entente powers, Britain and France. This marked the commencement of the Turkish War of Independence, a conflict that lasted until the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, which officially drove out the Western powers from Anatolia, the Turkish heartland. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, the Turkish people established their own nationstate, the Republic of Turkey, with Mustafa Kemal as its first president. Expelling the West and creating a new state were such significant accomplishments that the Turkish Parliament granted Mustafa Kemal Pasha the surname Atatiirk or "Father of the Turks."