Studia Antiqua


Rachel Huntsman


Protevangelium of James, Protoevangelium of James, Annunciation, Wells, Water, Symbolism, Well Imagery, Mary, Fertility, Marriage, Virgin


There are aspects of the annunciation scene—as portrayed in the Protevangelium of James—which have not yet been examined by modern scholars. These issues are important when relating to the history of well symbolism in the Hebrew Bible, which symbolism continued in force through the Second Temple period. This paper examines the symbolism of wells, fertility, and marriage and how the author of the Protevangelium of James consciously knew about this symbolism and wrote his narrative in a way that distanced Mary, the mother of Jesus, from any ideas saying that she was less than virginal.



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