Author Date


Degree Name



Mechanical Engineering


Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology

Defense Date


Publication Date


First Faculty Advisor

Dr. Tracianne B. Neilsen

First Faculty Reader

Dr. John L. Salmon

Honors Coordinator

Dr. Brian D. Jensen


Intensity-based, Sound Power, PAGE, acoustics, energy-based, estimation


Sound power is often measured using the intensity-based engineering standard ANSI S12.12-1992:R2017. Traditional methods for intensity-based sound power estimation are limited in bandwidth at low frequencies by phase mismatch between microphones and at high frequencies by microphone spacing—with errors occurring well below the spatial Nyquist frequency. The Phase and Amplitude Gradient Estimation (PAGE) method has been used to extend the bandwidth of intensity calculations [1]. This thesis examines the efficacy of the PAGE method in overcoming bandwidth limitations in estimating sound power. Specifically, the sound fields from three sources—a blender, vacuum cleaner, and reference sound source—were measured according to ANSI S12.12-1992:R2017. The sound power was computed for each source using both the traditional and PAGE methods. The resulting intensity-based sound power estimates are compared against sound power measurements obtained according to the scientific-grade ISO 3741:2010 standard. The PAGE method increases the bandwidth over which reliable estimates are achievable for intensity-based sound power, even exceeding the spatial Nyquist frequency when phase unwrapping is successful. Thus, using existing equipment, industry professionals can extend the bandwidth of sound power estimates with the PAGE method.