pediatric, out-patient, primary care, distress


Purpose: This literature review is designed to analyze interventions to minimize trauma and psychological stress experienced by pediatric patients during visits with their primary care providers. Data Sources: An electronic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies from 2008 to 2014 in the following databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Conclusions: Interventions to reduce a child's anxiety are available and easily executed. When anxiety is decreased, children are able to approach medical situations with a sense of comfort, achievement, and control. Decreasing stress can assist children in developing trusting relationships of the health care system as adults. Implications for Practice: An awareness of these interventions can guide health care providers in being a patient advocate in implementing these interventions.


The College of Nursing showcases some of our best evidence based scholarly papers from graduate students in the Family Nurse Practitioner Program. The papers address relevant clinical problems for advance practice nurses and are based on the best evidence available. Using a systematic approach students critically analyze and synthesize the research studies to determine the strength of the evidence regarding the clinical problem. Based on the findings, recommendations are made for clinical practice. The papers are published in professional journals and presented at professional meetings.

Document Type

Master's Project

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University Standing at Time of Publication

Graduate Student

Included in

Nursing Commons