Vitamin B12, cobalamin, deficiency, risk factors, symptoms, management


Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of all cells. A deficiency can cause serious hematologic and neurologic damage. Groups at high risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency include the elderly, vegetarians, pregnant women, persons with pernicious anemia, and patients with a history of gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of vitamin B12 deficiency and discuss its pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnostic testing, and management


The College of Nursing showcases some of our best evidence based scholarly papers from graduate students in the Family Nurse Practitioner Program. The papers address relevant clinical problems for advance practice nurses and are based on the best evidence available. Using a systematic approach students critically analyze and synthesize the research studies to determine the strength of the evidence regarding the clinical problem. Based on the findings, recommendations are made for clinical practice. The papers are published in professional journals and presented at professional meetings.

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Class Project or Paper

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University Standing at Time of Publication

Graduate Student

Included in

Nursing Commons