ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication, efficacy, cost, pediatric, treatment, effectiveness, safety, side effects, expense, children, adolescent, drug therapy, risk


Although a common psychological disorder, pharmacological treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be a costly endeavor. Among 4-5 year olds, methylphenidate is a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective option for short-, intermediate-, and long-acting medication options. Short-acting methylphenidate, intermediate-acting methylphenidate ER and SR, and long-acting methylphenidate LA are the most efficacious and cost-effective medications. Selection of non-stimulant medications should be based upon recommended guidelines rather than primarily on cost. For children incapable of swallowing pills, the most efficacious and cost-effective treatments are short-acting dextroamphetamine liquid and long-acting methylphenidate LA capsules that can be opened and sprinkled over food.


The College of Nursing showcases some of our best evidence based scholarly papers from graduate students in the Family Nurse Practitioner Program. The papers address relevant clinical problems for advance practice nurses and are based on the best evidence available. Using a systematic approach students critically analyze and synthesize the research studies to determine the strength of the evidence regarding the clinical problem. Based on the findings, recommendations are made for clinical practice. The papers are published in professional journals and presented at professional meetings.

Document Type

Master's Project

Publication Date


Permanent URL





University Standing at Time of Publication

Graduate Student

Included in

Nursing Commons