Sigma: Journal of Political and International Studies


Kennan Howlett


masculinity, roles of women, abuse


Today's American women have the capability to be more independent from men than ever before. A cursory glance at U.S. society suggests that this transition to selfreliance has been relatively smooth. For example, women have consistently earned more bachelor's degrees than men since 1982 (Perry 2013, Francis 2016) and nine out of ten men claim to be comfortable with women earning more than them (Dunlop 2009). This cultural shift has empowered women to seek opportunities outside of the home and take on new roles within society. Women are accepted as confident, competent leaders who make substantial contributions to the U.S. work force.