Journal of Undergraduate Research


localization of cell bodies, stellate, cervical ganglia, cardiac muscle, vasculature of the brain


Life Sciences


Physiology and Developmental Biology


Introduction: Arrhythmia is a serious heart defect that effects 14 million people in the United States.i When the impulse rhythm becomes irregular or the frequency of atrial and ventricular beats are different it is called arrhythmia.ii The most serious effects of arrhythmia include sudden cardiac arrest and stroke.iii Sympathetic nerve activity from the stellate ganglia increases prior to arrhythmia events leading to sudden cardiac death.iv About 383,000 cases of cardiac arrest are recorded annually in the United States alone.v Current treatment for arrhythmia consists of ablation or intentional, permanent scarring of the heart tissue, rather than a more targeted block of the nerves innervating the heart.

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