Journal of Undergraduate Research



dual-targeted plant organelle, DNA replication proteins, mitochondria, chloroplasts


Life Sciences


Physiology and Developmental Biology


Neofunctionalization is the process by which genes gain a new or modified function as a result of gene duplication and modification of one or more of the new genes. This exciting area of research helps explain the diversification of protein functions in cells. The number of documented examples has increased in recent years in all classes of organisms (Deng et al., 2010; Han et al. 2011; Cannela et al. 2014; Sakuma et al. 2013; Zhang et al. 2014). In some cases a protein that was previously thought to function in only one cellular compartment has been shown to also function in another compartment with a modified or new function. This includes proteins localized to mitochondria and chloroplasts.