Publication Date



P-factor, R-factor, Runoff, SWAT, SWAT-CUP, SUFI2


The Ong river basin, a tributary of the Mahanadi River (a major river basin in eastern India) needs an effective management of water resources due to flood severity for sustainable agricultural production and flood protection. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used in this study for setting up a watershed model for discharge simulation in the basin. SWAT-CUP (SWAT-Calibration and Uncertainty Program) that enables calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) technique was used in the study. The SWAT model was calibrated from 1981–1990 (warm up period: 1979–1981); and validated from1991-2000. The goodness of fit of the model calibration and uncertainty was assessed using two indices, i.e., p-factor and r-factor. These measures together indicate the strength of the calibration-uncertainty analysis of SWAT model. During calibration, the p and r values were obtained as 0.75 and 0.82, respectively, while during validation, the p and r were found as 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. As per the results of this study, the SWAT model can be efficiently used in the Ong basin by water resources’ managers for managing droughts and floods, agricultural water management, and planning for soil and water conservation structures.