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Groundwater quality, GIS, Integration analysis, Jammu district, J&K, India


Geographical Information System (GIS) based groundwater quality mapping has been carried out with the help of hydrochemical data of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir State. Groundwater quality for drinking water purposes was analyzed by considering the WHO (2004) and ISI (1991) standard. A total of 100 samples were collected from different geological formations of the study area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for the major chemical constituents viz. Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ (cations); HCO3- , Cl- , F- , SO42-, NO3- , SiO2 (anions); pH, EC, TDS. In the study it is found that 80 samples in the pre-monsoon and 85 samples in the post-monsoon were under the hard water category (Sawyer and McCarty 1967). The purposes of this investigation were to provide an overview of present groundwater quality to determine spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters and to map groundwater quality in the study area by using GIS. The ArcGIS 9.2 was used for generation of various thematic maps and ArcGIS spatial analyst to produce the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique, ordinary kriging, was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. Five thematic maps with parameters such as TH, TDS, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- having desirable and undesirable classes were integrated using the overlay method and groundwater quality map for drinking purposes has been prepared. A salinity hazard map was also prepared after generating contours which show the regions with low, medium and high salinity hazards. The groundwater quality for drinking purposes was integrated with groundwater quality of irrigation purposes by spatial analysis. Integrating groundwater quality for drinking purposes and irrigation purposes pictorially representation shows desirable zone for drinking, desirable zone for irrigation purposes, desirable zones of both drinking and irrigation purpose and undesirables for drinking or irrigation purposes.