This literature review examines the implications and benefits of birth order position on the child. Depending upon position, somewhat predictable differences are likely in expectations, responsibilities, opportunities, nurturing and the like. Consequently, birth order affects the child's peer relationships and the child's self-esteem. Children without siblings have difficulty relating with their peers throughout their lives and have relatively higher self-esteem. Firstborn children strive towards perfection and report higher self-esteem. This tendency may impact peer relationships negatively, except when in a position of power. Middle-born children have relatively good relationships with their peers and lower self-esteem. Last born children tend to have good relationships with their peers when they are not in a position of power and report higher levels of self-esteem.
"The Benefits and Implications of Birth Order Position,"
Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology: Vol. 9:
1, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/intuition/vol9/iss1/4