Paternal involvement is a crucial variable in the development of a child’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The negative effects of a father’s absence present many risk factors for children. This review of the literature seeks to combine the research surrounding the positive effects that paternal involvement yields in the lives of children, the negative effects of a father’s absence, the various variables that impede paternal involvement, and the possible interventions or replacements for fathers in the lives of children. Although many impeding factors have been identified, little research has been done to find a possible intervention. According to the research consulted in this review, there is a limited amount of buffers for decreased paternal involvement. Future research should be conducted to discover more effective possible buffers, or to find a therapeutic method that more effectively increases father involvement.

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