This study was conducted with 16 international non-native English speaking undergraduate students to examine the impact of tokenism on such students' test-taking performance. The students were divided into two testing conditions. The experimental group was given a modified GRE verbal ability test in a room with three native English speaking confederates. The control group was given the same test in the presence of fellow international students. The purpose was to compare test results of the two groups, taking into account participants' TOEFL scores, age, and length of stay in the United States. A significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups when accounting for length of stay in the United States.
"Tokenism in Non-Native English Speakers: Does it Affect Their English Testing Abilities?,"
Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology: Vol. 2:
1, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/intuition/vol2/iss1/4