anxiety disorders, neurobiology, neurocognition, treatment


There are many types of anxiety disorders, all of which are most recognizable by their display of excessive fear or worry. In order to fully recognize and treat anxiety disorders, individuals must understand the neurobiological causes and neurocognitive expressions of the disorder. This review examines 16 studies on the neurobiology, cognitive symptoms, and treatment options for anxiety disorders. This revealed that the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, visual cortex, and superior temporal gyrus play a substantial role in anxiety disorders. These biological substrates are then linked to common cognitive symptoms of anxiety disorders, including executive function deficits. Finally, both neuropharmacological therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy are examined for their efficacy in helping patients with anxiety disorders. By drawing connections between these key aspects of anxiety disorders, this review concludes that it is important to understand each aspect thoroughly so that we can more readily and accurately diagnose patients, choose an effective treatment method for their needs, and help people of all ages manage the symptoms of these disorders.

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