The present literature review examines how the construction of gender influences bullying among children and adolescents, as w ell as the possible effects of bullying on children, both as bullies an d victims. An in-depth, theoretical analysis of gender stereotype and gender construction is presented, through a review of cognitive development theory, social learning theory, and cultivation theory. Gender construction leads children to adopt different behaviors and to interact with peers in various ways (Emilson et al., 2016; Fagot, 1994; Tobin et al., 2010). Among children and adolescents, the two most prominent forms of bullying that result from gender construction are physical bullying and relational bullying, both of which can be observed in varying degrees based on the bully’s and the victim’s perceptions of gender stereotypes (Hazler, 1996). One of the most damaging forms of relational bullying among adolescents is sexual harassment. Although often seen as a legal issue, sexual harassment is a form of bullying that results from gender construction and perceptions that often begin at very young ages (Gruber & Fineran, 2016). After examining the responses to bullying given by peers, teachers, and counselors, this review will provide suggestions for addressing, preventing, and intervening in bullying situations within schools. Schools should loo k to address bullying from a young age by combating prevailing gender stereotypes and offering safe environments for students through support from teachers, families, and student-run groups.
"Responding to Bullying by Gender,"
Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology: Vol. 12
, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/intuition/vol12/iss2/2