Autonomous vehicles are currently the newest and hottest technology and show tremendous potential in making current transportation much more efficient. GIS is a key element in providing different mapping solutions and satellite assistance to support the cars in addition to their LIDAR and camera systems. Over the last few decades, different technologies have been integrated into cars to make them more user friendly--more autonomous. Recently, cars have been given a standardized range to categorize them into different levels of autonomy. The levels range from 0 to 5. Level 0 has no capacity of any autonomous technology; level 1 has cruise control or anti-lock brake system; now, level 5 is completely driverless, meaning, the car does not even need a steering wheel.
Lant, Nate and Strong, Matthew, "Laboratory X - Autonomous Vehicle Application" (2017). Engineering Applications of GIS - Laboratory Exercises. 4.