Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs


Strategies used to enhance or help restore rare and endangered animal species are reviewed. No new strategies are presented, but rather a review of various levels at which programs can be initiated are indicated. Nearly 93 percent of the recognized endangered animals are vertebrates. Programs to help restore vertebrates can be aimed at either the habitat or the organism level. Habitat restoration or preservation is the more difficult to achieve and, accordingly, most strategies are aimed at the organism. Species, populations, or communities are ecosystems can be treated, but most often each requires a separate approach. Among organisms the species level attracts most of the enhancement effort because species are easier to understand and deal with. Numerous strategies are being tried with species, and several examples, such as the Aleutian Canada goose, Galapagos tortoise, a wingless undescribed orthropteran, and fish species requiring turbid water, are given. Populations or communities of animals are more difficult to work with, but some strategies such as faunal reserves are likely to be successful. A table listing 39 examples of endangered species from across the animal kingdom, along with the major reasons for the declines and currently working strategies or possible ones to help them recover, is presented.