Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) is a major rangeland and roadside weed of the northern Rocky Mountains. It is often found in plant communities dominated by Pseudoroegneria spicatum or Festuca idahoensis, but it rarely invades roadsides dominated by Bromus tnermis Leyss. Aboveground biomass of the 3 grass species grown in mixture with Centaurea was compared to growth in monoculture at a range of nitrogen input levels. The results suggest that Bromus is capable of suppressing the growth of Centaurea with the degree of suppression increasing with increasing nitrogen levels. The 2 native grasses had no impact on Centaurea under the controlled environment conditions of this study.
Lindquist, John L.; Maxwell, Bruce D.; and Weaver, T.
"Potential for controlling the spread of Centaurea maculosa with grass competition,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 56
, Article 10.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol56/iss3/10