We studied the foraging biology of recently fledged California Gulls (Larus californicus) at Mono Lake during August–September 1991. We made behavioral observations to collect information on the relative proportions of different prey types in the diet of these birds and took plankton tows to determine the relative abundance of each prey in the water column. These data show that alkali flies (Ephydra hians) were the primary constituent of the diet and that they were eaten at a much higher rate than one would expect based on their abundance. We also determined the number of feeding attempts and successful captures made during each behavioral observation. From these, we calculated the bird's feeding efficiencies on emergent adult alkali flies and on all other prey types combined. We found that foraging efficiencies on emergent flies were very high and significantly greater than those obtained on other prey types. These results suggest that flies were actively sought in preference to the alternative prey type, brine shrimp (Artemia monica), presumably because they are easier to capture and of greater nutritional value.
Elphick, Chris S. and Rubega, Margaret A.
"Prey choices and foraging efficiency of recently fledged California Gulls at Mono Lake, California,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 55
, Article 9.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol55/iss4/9