Great Basin Naturalist


External morphological variation in the Lopidea nigridia "complex" of western North America was examined using principal component analysis and showed continuous variation among populations in most characters. External morphology did not parallel paramere structure and did not substantiate previously recognized species. There was little correlation between dorsal coloration and paramere structure. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) using paramere and color characters failed to group populations coded as the same species and also failed to group all specimens of any one population. The variation in structure of the parameres and vesicae among populations of the nigridia complex was no greater than the interpopulational variation of these structures structures in the congeneric species marginata Uhler.

Lopidea nigridia Uhler is treated as a polytypic species comprising three subspecies: Lopidea nigridia nigridia Uhler, a fuscous-white form from the sagebrush steppe of the Great Basin and the chaparral of southern California; Lopidea nigridia serica Knight, a solid red form from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Colorado and east across the Northern Great Plains to southern Manitoba; Lopidea nigridia aculeata Van Duzee, a polymorphic form varying from solid red to fuscous red and white from the Cascade Mountains and eastern slopes of the coastal ranges of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon, the Blue and Wallawa mountains of Oregon and Washington, and throughout the Coastal and Sierra Nevada ranges of California.

The following new synonymies are created: Lopidea nigridia Uhler = Lopidea raineri Knight, Lopidea scullent Knight, Lopidea rolfsi Knight, and Lopidea wilcoxi Knight; Lopidea nigridia aculeata Van Duzee = Lopidea nigridia hirta Van Duzee, Lopidea usingeri Van Duzee, Lopidea discreta Van Duzee, Lopidea fallax Knight, Lopidea Yakima Knight, Lopidea audeni Knight, Lopidea eriogoni Knight, Lopidea calcaria Knight, Lopidea chamberlini Knight, Lopidea angustata Knight, Lopidea rubrofusca Knight, and Lopidea flavicostata Knight and Schaffner; Lopidea nigridia serica Knight = Lopidea medleri Akingbohungbe.