Great Basin Naturalist


On 17 Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma [Torrey] L.) sites studied in Utah, Gymnosporangium inconspicuum was the most common rust fungus, followed in frequency and severity by G. nelsoni, G. kernianum, and G. speciosum. The incidence of G. kernianum was correlated with moderate temperatures and greater than average precipitation. True mistletoe, Phoradendron juniperinum Engelm., was present on seven sites. Incidence of foliage diseases of the mold-mildew type was low on sites with low spring and summer temperatures and high on sites with high summer and fall precipitation. Wood rot was common, and incidence seemed to be correlated with low winter temperatures and low soil nitrate but not with annual precipitation. Needle blight, shoot dieback, and needle cast symptoms were common and considered of abiotic origin. Their nonparasitic nature was indicated by lack of association with pathogenic organisms and the positive correlation of their incidence with winter injury and summer drought factors. Needle blight was also positively correlated with high soil salinity but negatively with high soil calcium regardless of salinity.

A nonparametric model was developed that accurately predicted the frequency of the mold-mildew type diseases of J. osteosperma based on measured environmental site factors.