Great Basin Naturalist


Many bristlecone pines in the White Mountains, California, are members of multistem clumps. We propose that these clumps have arisen by multiple germinations from seed caches of Clark's Nutcracker, as occurs in several other pine species. The commonness of nutcrackers and their caching of singleleaf pinyon seeds in the study area provide supporting evidence. Other vertebrates appear unlikely to be responsible for the stem clumps. Seed burial may be required to establish regeneration on these adverse sites where bristlecone pine attains great longevity.