Zigadenus paniculatus is a toxic plant common on sagebrush foothills at middle elevations in the western United States. Plants produce several racemes from a single stalk. Flowering commences at the base of each raceme and proceeds upwards. The terminal raceme begins blooming first and is followed by lower racemes in sequential order. Flowers are markedly protandrous and incapable of autogamy. Observations do not support the idea that apomixis is a viable reproductive strategy. Plants are mostly self-incompatible; a few seeds were produced from geitonogamous hand pollinations. The pollen/ovule ratio was high, also suggesting outcrossing as the predominant mode of sexual reproduction. A self-incompatibility mechanism may have evolved because the movements of syrphid flies on the inflorescence render protandry alone insufficient to prevent some selfing. The probable presence of toxic substances in the pollen and nectar appears to have reduced the number of potential pollinator species but increased the flower constancy of those species capable of utilizing the floral rewards.
Tepedino, V. J.
"Notes on the reproductive biology of Zigadenus paniculatus, a toxic range plant,"
Great Basin Naturalist: Vol. 41:
4, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/gbn/vol41/iss4/6