Great Basin Naturalist


Fourteen North, Central, and South American Scolytidae have reached areas outside of America, namely Hawaii (5), Australia (3), Southeast Asia (2), Africa (7), Europe (1), and worldwide (1). The 44 species introduced into North and Central America have originated in South America (10), Southeast Asia (15), Africa (14), or Europe (7). Four North and Central American species have extended their ranges into new territory within this region. Most of the species that breed in the bole or roots of their host were imported more than a half century ago; those imported since 1950 breed mostly in seeds, pods, dry fruits, or small branches. Forty-five of the 62 species apparently can reproduce by means of facultative arrhenotokic parthenogenesis.