Family Perspectives


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder that involves a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity which interferes with functioning or development. ADHD is commonly diagnosed in childhood and can persist into adulthood (Kok et al., 2020; Fraticelli et al., 2022). It is estimated that ADHD affects 5-7% of school-age children with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 3:1 (Kok et al., 2016). For a long time, ADHD was assumed to be primarily a male disorder, but researchers are increasingly finding that the number of males and females with ADHD is likely close to equal (Nussbaum, 2012). There is increasing evidence that females with ADHD often go undiagnosed or are misdiagnosed and are frequently diagnosed at a much later age than their male counterparts (Kok et al., 2020). Researchers have identified a few key reasons that could be responsible for the underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of ADHD in females.

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