antenna radiation patterns, diversity reception, finite difference time-domain analysis, loop antennas, mobile antennas, mobile radio systems, monopole antennas, personal communication networks, receiving antennas, transceivers


The design of antennas for hand-held communications devices depends on the implementation of simulation tools that can accurately model general topologies. The paper presents the analysis of small antennas mounted on hand-held transceivers using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The key features of the FDTD implementation are discussed, with particular emphasis placed upon modeling of the source region. The technique is used to predict the gain patterns and broadband input impedance behavior of monopole, planar inverted F, and loop antenna elements mounted on the handset. Effects of the conducting handset chassis, the plastic casing around the device, and lumped elements integrated into the antenna design are illustrated. Experimental results are provided to verify the accuracy of the computational methodology. The concept of antenna diversity is discussed, and key assumptions and expressions are provided that characterize the multipath fading fields. Several computational examples demonstrate the diversity performance of two receiving antennas on a single handset.

Original Publication Citation

Jensen, M. A., and Y. Rahmat-Samii. "Performance Analysis of Antennas for Hand-Held Transceivers using FDTD." Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on 42.8 (1994): 116-13

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL






Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology


Electrical and Computer Engineering