Group Questionnaire, group process, group psychotherapy evaluation, therapeutic relationship, cross-cultural validity


The Group Questionnaire (GQ) is a measure recently developed by Krogel et al. (2013) for the evaluation of the therapeutic relationship in group. The GQ identifies a three-factor model of the relationship that allows to measure quality (Positive Bonding, Positive Working and Negative Relationship) and structure (member-member, member-leader and member-group), dimensions in group. This work shows the results of a first study on the Italian validation of the GQ. In this study the GQ was administered to 536 subjects from 32 non-clinical groups of undergraduate students. The cross-cultural validity of the GQ in the Italian population has been examined by comparing the psychometric properties and equivalence in factor structure and scores of the Italian GQ with the original American version. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine both the between- and within-group structures. Data concerning reliability and validity of GQ and the results for different SEM in Multilevel CFA confirm the three factors structure of the GQ. Data from the Italian population have a good fit with the original proposed model. Finally, we discuss the importance of an instrument like GQ, short but consistent, for the evaluation of the therapeutic relationship in clinical and training group.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome




Family, Home, and Social Sciences



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Psychology Commons