L2 writing, Accuracy improvement, Error correction, Written corrective feedback


Truscott’s (1996) indictment on error correction in second-language (L2) writing has ignited much discussion and research on the appropriateness of written corrective feedback (WCF) in L2 contexts. Out of this has emerged a body of research that suggests that WCF can positively impact the linguistic accuracy of student writing. However, these studies have examined only one or two error types. A central aspect of the efficacy of any corrective measure has to do with using feedback that is appropriate for the learner and the learning context. This paper builds on previous studies of dynamic WCF, which targets all linguistic errors simultaneously. Previously, dynamic WCF was studied in the context of an intensive English program where students’ linguistic accuracy was positively affected. The current study tested the efficacy of dynamic WCF in the context of ESL students who are enrolled in university undergraduate studies. A comparative study was conducted measuring ESL learners who were taught using dynamic WCF against students who received traditional process writing instruction. Results indicated that students who received traditional process writing instruction experienced some declines in linguistic accuracy while those who received dynamic WCF showed significant improvement in the linguistic accuracy of their L2 writing.

Original Publication Citation

Evans, N. W., Hartshorn, K. J., Strong-Krause, D. (2011). “The efficacy of dynamic written corrective feedback for university-matriculated ESL learners.” System, 39, 229–239.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Elsevier Ltd







University Standing at Time of Publication

Associate Professor