Influences on Teacher Choices about Corrective Feedback in Second Language Writing


corrective feedback, linguistic accuracy, L2 writing, writing pedagogy, writing teachers


As research on corrective feedback targeting linguistic accuracy in second language (L2) writing expands in scope and quality, we continue to gain insights about the effects of feedback on L2 writers. Nevertheless, comparatively little research has focused on the teachers themselves – those who make the pedagogical decisions about the use of feedback in the classroom. Thus, we have sought to better understand the variables that may shape practitioners’ choices about feedback targeting linguistic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to analyze learner, teacher, and situational variables that may influence correct feedback choices in the L2 classroom. Data were collected by means of an electronic survey distributed to over 1000 ESL/EFL writing teachers in 69 different nations. In addition to investigating the entire data set, we examined those practitioners who provide the most and least feedback targeting linguistic accuracy. We analyzed variables such as learner age, proficiency, purposes for language learning, the ESL/EFL context, and type of institution, as well as the teachers’ L1, level of education, academic background, years of experience, and professional responsibilities. A number of systematic differences between groups were observed. Explanations for these findings are explored and suggestions are given for future research.

Original Publication Citation

Hartshorn, K. J., Evans, N. W., & Tuioti, E. A. (2014). Influences on Teachers’ Corrective Feedback Choices in Second Language Writing. Writing and Pedagogy, 6(2), 251–282. https://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v6i2.251

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Equinox Publishing







University Standing at Time of Publication

Associate Professor