The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents


African Americans, adolescents, parenting, self-esteem, academic achievement


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between adolescent functioning (i.e., self-esteem and academic achievement) and parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control in European American and African American adolescents. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that supportive behaviors of African American mothers toward their adolescent children positively predicted both self-esteem and academic achievement. Psychological control was significantly related to adolescent self-esteem in both the models of paternal parenting (African American and European American) and maternal parenting (African American). In addition, among European American adolescents, behavioral control was a significant predictor of academic achievement and self-esteem. This study provides support for the methodological value of examining the parenting dimensions independently as opposed to combining them to form parenting styles.

Original Publication Citation

Bean, R. A.,*Bush, K. R., McKenry, P. C., & Wilson, S. M. (2003). The impact of parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control on the academic achievement and self-esteem of African-American and European-American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(5), 523-541.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Journal of Adolescent Research




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Family Life

University Standing at Time of Publication

Associate Professor