family functioning, crowding, density, home, space


The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which actual (e.g., density) and perceived (e.g., crowding and distance) elements of the spatial home environment act as predictors of family functioning. Data were gathered from 164 families whose child was attending a university's preschool/kindergarten facility in a mid-sized community in the Western United States. Structural equation modeling (SEM, AMOS 19.0) was employed to examine the strength of the relations within the model. Results showed that though actual elements of the home (i.e., density) affect family functioning outcomes, perceptions of the home environment (e.g., crowding and distance) were especially influential as mediating the link between density and aspects of family functioning. Findings suggest that how individuals perceive their home environment has more of an effect on family functioning than actual home characteristics.

Original Publication Citation

*Thornock, C. M., Nelson, L. J., Porter, C. L., & Evans, C. A. (2019). There’s no place like home: The associations between residential attributes and family functioning. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 64, 39-47.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


Journal of Environmental Psychology




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Family Life

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor