The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback in an Outpatient Setting: A Multilevel Modeling Approach


neurofeedback, EEG, anxiety, depression, emotion regulation


Purpose: Neurofeedback is an increasingly common therapeutic intervention for mental disorders. Most of the existent neurofeedback via electroencephalography (EEG-nf) research uses controlled studies to examine whether EEG-nf is an efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known regarding the effectiveness of EEG-nf in clinical settings for symptoms other than ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EEG-nf sessions were associated with a reduction in hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Method: Multilevel growth curve models were used to analyze secondary data from 83 EEG-nf patients from an outpatient clinic. Results: EEG-nf sessions were associated with a decrease in mental disorder symptoms generally, but this trend slowed over time. Discussion: Findings suggest that practitioners should adhere to a relatively brief (approximately 30 sessions) EEG-nf protocol. Findings also encourage more research dedicated to examining the effectiveness of EEG-nf on a variety of mental health symptoms treated in community settings.

Original Publication Citation

Ward, K. P., Porter, N. A., & Wood, D. S. (2019). The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback in an Outpatient Setting: A Multilevel Modeling Approach. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(8), 939–948.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Research on Social Work Practice




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Social Work

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor