American Indian income and father involvement with children in urban cities


American Indians, father involvement, children in cities


Scholars believe that father involvement plays a significant role in a child's development (Carlson and Magnuson, 2011, Hofferth, 2003, Slade, 2013, Waldfogel et al., 2010). While current research sheds greater light on the positive contributors of fathers on child wellbeing, it also raises concerns regarding the increasing numbers of children being raised either in the absence of, or with limited access to fathers. According to the National Vital Statistics Report, data for 2014 indicates that 40.2% of children in the U.S. were born to unmarried mothers(Hamilton, Martin, Osterman, Curtin, & Mathews, 2015). Hofferth (2003)and Slade (2013) suggest that father absence impacts these unmarried births and that race/ethnic variations in fathering patterns might be due to different economic circumstances, neighborhood environments, and as attitudes and values originating from the cultural social context. This is especially pertinent for American Indian children as 65.7% were born to unmarried parents (Hamilton et al., 2015).

Original Publication Citation

Saasa, S., & Limb, G. (2017). American Indian income and father involvement with children in urban cities. Children and Youth Services Review, 78, 170-176.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


Children and Youth Services Review




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Social Work

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor