An Examination of the Living Conditions of Urban American Indian Children in Unmarried Families: Increasing Cultural Competence in Child Welfare


unmarried families, American Indians, Urban living, child welfare


The past 50 years have revealed dramatically shifting trends in the familial structure of American society. When examining these trends, and family research in general, the American Indian family unit has received little to no attention. This study utilized data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the living conditions of urban American Indian children in unmarried families. Results showed that while these children appear to have a strong start, concerns are raised regarding American Indian mothers' low educational achievement and high incidence of poverty. These concerns can lead to potential issues regarding sustained development that can arise as the children grow. Therefore, child welfare workers must understand these issues and work to ameliorate them in order to provide culturally competent services to urban American Indian families and children.

Original Publication Citation

Limb, G., & *Garza, R. (2012). An examination of the living conditions of urban American Indian children in unmarried families: Increasing cultural competence in child welfare. Child Welfare, 91(3), 173-190.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date



Child Welfare




Family, Home, and Social Sciences


Social Work

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor