instructional design, design practice, design process, design structure


This article asks five questions that lead us to the foundations of design practice. Design processes structure time, space, place, activity, role, goal and resource. For educational technology to advance in its understanding of design practice, it must question whether we have clear conceptions of how abstract conceptions are turned into physical artifacts capable of inspiring the intellect and the emotions to facilitate learning. These five questions hopefully supply topics for design conversations.

Original Publication Citation

Talk given at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology in recognition of receiving the Distinguished Development Award from the journal Educational Technology Research and Development. November, 2015, Indianapolis, IN. In press, Educational Technology.

Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date



David O. McKay School of Education


Instructional Psychology and Technology

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor