test development, test reliability, test validity, Theistic Spiritual Outcome Survey, psychotherapy outcomes, eating disorders
We developed the Spiritual Outcome Scale (SOS) to measure the spiritual outcomes of psychotherapy from a theistic spiritual perspective. A 17-item version of the SOS was found to have adequate reliability and validity in a sample of college students. Three factors emerged from the analyses that corresponded to subscales labeled Love of God, Love of Others, and Love of Self. Correlations with measures of psychological outcomes were statistically significant. In subsequent analyses, the SOS was administered over an 8-week period to a sample of inpatient women with eating disorders and to two samples from inpatient psychological clinics in Germany. The analyses resulting from these studies were also supportive of the reliability, validity and clinical usefulness of the scale. Overall, the findings support the use of the SOS as a spiritual outcome scale in psychotherapy research
Original Publication Citation
Richards, P. S., Smith, T. B., Schowalter, M., Richard, M., Berrett, M. E., & Hardman, R. K. (2005). Development and validation of the theistic spiritual outcome survey. Psychotherapy Research, 15, 457-469.
BYU ScholarsArchive Citation
Richards, P. Scott; Smith, Timothy B.; Schowalter, Marion; Berrett, Michael E.; and Hardman, Randy K., "Development and validation of the theistic spiritual outcome survey" (2005). All Faculty Publications. 1993.
Taylor & Francis
David O. McKay School of Education
Counseling Psychology and Special Education
©2005 Society for Psychotherapy Research
Copyright Use Information