test development, test reliability, test validity, Theistic Spiritual Outcome Survey, psychotherapy outcomes, eating disorders


We developed the Spiritual Outcome Scale (SOS) to measure the spiritual outcomes of psychotherapy from a theistic spiritual perspective. A 17-item version of the SOS was found to have adequate reliability and validity in a sample of college students. Three factors emerged from the analyses that corresponded to subscales labeled Love of God, Love of Others, and Love of Self. Correlations with measures of psychological outcomes were statistically significant. In subsequent analyses, the SOS was administered over an 8-week period to a sample of inpatient women with eating disorders and to two samples from inpatient psychological clinics in Germany. The analyses resulting from these studies were also supportive of the reliability, validity and clinical usefulness of the scale. Overall, the findings support the use of the SOS as a spiritual outcome scale in psychotherapy research

Original Publication Citation

Richards, P. S., Smith, T. B., Schowalter, M., Richard, M., Berrett, M. E., & Hardman, R. K. (2005). Development and validation of the theistic spiritual outcome survey. Psychotherapy Research, 15, 457-469.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

Publication Date


Permanent URL


Taylor & Francis




David O. McKay School of Education


Counseling Psychology and Special Education

University Standing at Time of Publication

Full Professor