Multi-segment foot, Foot models, Gait analysis, Kinetics


Kinematic multi-segment foot models have seen increased use in clinical and research settings, but the addition of kinetics has been limited and hampered by measurement limitations and modeling assumptions. In this second of two companion papers, we complete the presentation and analysis of a three segment kinetic foot model by incorporating kinetic parameters and calculating joint moments and powers. The model was tested on 17 pediatric subjects (ages 7–18 years) during normal gait. Ground reaction forces were measured using two adjacent force platforms, requiring targeted walking and the creation of two sub-models to analyze ankle, midtarsal, and 1st metatarsophalangeal joints. Targeted walking resulted in only minimal kinematic and kinetic differences compared with walking at self selected speeds. Joint moments and powers were calculated and ensemble averages are presented as a normative database for comparison purposes. Ankle joint powers are shown to be overestimated when using a traditional single-segment foot model, as substantial angular velocities are attributed to the mid-tarsal joint. Power transfer is apparent between the 1st metatarsophalangeal and mid-tarsal joints in terminal stance/pre-swing. While the measurement approach presented here is limited to clinical populations with only minimal impairments, some elements of the model can also be incorporated into routine clinical gait analysis.

Original Publication Citation

Bruening DA, Cooney KM, Buczek FL. Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model part II: kinetics and clinical implications. Gait Posture. 2012 Apr;35(4):535-40. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.11.012. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Document Type

Peer-Reviewed Article

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Life Sciences


Exercise Sciences

University Standing at Time of Publication

Assistant Professor