An efficient solution method for evaluating radiative transport in a foam layer is a valuable tool for predicting the properties of the layer. Two different solution methods have been investigated. First, a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation has been developed. In the RMC simulation photon bundles are traced backwards from a detector to the source where they were emitted. The RMC method takes advantage of time reflection symmetry, allowing the photons to be traced backwards in the same manner they are tracked in a standard forward Monte Carlo scheme. Second, a reduced order model based on the singular value decomposition (ROM) has been developed. ROM uses solutions of the reflectance-time profiles found for specific values of the governing parameters to form a solution basis that can be used to generate the profile for any arbitrary values of the parameter set. The governing parameters that were used in this study include the foam layer thickness, the asymmetry parameter, and the scattering coefficient. Layer thicknesses between 4 cm and 20 cm were considered. Values of the asymmetry parameter varied between 0.2 and .08, while the scattering coefficient ranged from 2800 m-1 to 14000 m-1. Ten blind test cases with parameters chosen randomly from these ranges were run and compared to an established forward Monte Carlo (FMC) solution to determine the accuracy and efficiency of both methods. For both RMC and ROM methods the agreement with FMC is good. The average difference in areas under the curves relative to the FMC curve for the ten cases of RMC is 7.1% and for ROM is 7.6%. One of the ten cases causes ROM to extrapolate outside of its data set. If this case is excluded the average error for the remaining nine cases is 5.3%. While the efficiency of RMC for this case is not much greater than that of FMC, it is advantageous in that a solution over a specified time range can be found, as opposed to the FMC where the entire profile must be found. ROM is a very efficient solution method. After a library of solutions is developed, a separated solution with different parameters can be found essentially in real-time. Because of the efficiency of this ROM it is a very promising solution technique for property analysis using inverse methods.



College and Department

Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering and Technology; Mechanical Engineering



Date Submitted


Document Type





radiation modeling, reverse Monte Carlo, Reduced Order Modeling, computation